Infectious diseases can be transmitted from horse to horse or they can acquire from a vector, such as a mosquito. There are vaccines against many of these diseases and as an owner you can vaccinate your own horse or have your veterinarian administer the vaccinations. Some of the vaccines are more universal and others are given depending on “at risk” factors. Some of these “at risk” factors depend on if the horse is traveling, the area of the country and how old they are. Most vaccines will need to be given annually or even semi-annually.
Foal from Vaccinated Mare
30 days prior to foaling - EEE, WEE, WNV, Tetanus, Influenza, and Rhino administered at 6, 7 & 11 months of age.
Foal from an Unvaccinated Mare
prior to foaling - EEE, WEE, WNV, Tetanus, Influenza and Rhino administered at 3, 4, 7 & 11 months of age.
EEE, WEE, WNV, Tetanus, Influenza, & Rhino administered on time per year.
EEE, WEE, Rhino, Influenza Tetanus administered two times per year. WNV administered one time per year.
EEE, WEE, WNV, Influenza & Rhino, & Tetanus should be administered one time per year.
EEE, WEE, WNV, Tetanus, Influenza, administered 30 days prior to foaling. EHV1 (Pneumabort K) administered at 3, 5, 7 and 9 months of gestation.
|Vaccine||EEE Eastern||WEE Western||West Nile||Tetanus Toxid||Equine Influenza||EHV-1 Pneumabort K|
|Foal 12 months of age/year (from vaccinated mare)||3 dose (6,7,11 mo)||3 dose (6,7,11 mo)||3 dose (6,7,11 mo)||3 dose (6,7,11 mo)||3 dose (6,7,11 mo)|
|Foal 12 months of age/year (from unvaccinated mare)||3 dose (3,4,7 mo)||3 dose (3,4,7 mo)||3 dose (3,4,7 mo)||3 dose (3,4,5 mo)||3 dose (6,7,11 mo)|
|Adult Horse||1 dose /yr||1 dose /yr||1 dose /yr||1 dose /yr||1 dose /yr|
|Performance Horse||2 dose /yr||2 dose /yr||2 dose /yr||2 dose /yr||2 -3 dose /yr|
|Senior Horse||1 dose /yr||1 dose /yr||1 dose /yr||1 dose /yr||Risk Based|
|Broodmare||3,5,7,9 mo of gestation|
What You're Preventing
Tetanus is one of the most common given vaccines! Tetanus is caused by a bacterial toxin normally found in the soil and in the feces of horses. This particular bacterium multiplies in an environment with decreased oxygen supply to produce the tetanus toxin. Some common areas are puncture would or where a wound has healed over (such as naval stump of a newborn foal). Some common symptoms are stiff neck which leads to overall body stiffness or protrusion of the third eyelid. Prevention is essential as Tetanus is often fatal.
Equine Herpes Virus
Equine Herpes virus is also known more commonly as rhinopneumonitis, rhino or viral abortion. There are two types of equine herpes virus one known has EHV-4 usually causes respiratory problems such as fever, cough and nasal discharge. The second type of equine herpes virus known has EHV-1 also causes respiratory problems but can also have reproductive problems (abortion and stillbirth). It can also have neurological problems such as hind limb weakness, difficulty walk and can lead to paralysis. Once a horse has become infected with this virus they are always a carrier and can shed the virus.
Equine Influenza is similar to the human flu as its spread by inhaling infected droplets. Also similar to the human form is the symptoms which include dry hacking cough, fever, nasal discharge, weakness, loss of appetite and depression. While Equine Influenza is rarely fatal it can lead to secondary problems such as emphysema, pneumonia and bronchitis.
Equine Encephalomyelitis (EEE, WEE)
This is a vector born disease which is carried by mosquitoes and it attacks the nervous system. There are 3 types of this virus: Eastern, Western and Venezuelan. Signs and symptoms of this disease are high fever, depression, lack of coordination, muscle tremors and eventually complete paralysis. Prevention of this disease is yearly vaccination and good mosquito control.
West Nile Virus
This virus is also vector born by mosquitoes and can be transmitted to humans as well. In some cases horses bitten by infected mosquitoes do not show any symptoms or signs and recover on their own. This virus affects the central nervous system and causes a wide range of symptoms such as fever, weakness or paralysis of the hind limbs, impaired vision, lack of coordination, head pressing, convulsion, inability to swallow and even coma.
Unfortunately the rabies vaccine isn't able to be shipped to AA, AE, AK, AL, AR, AS, CA, Ct, GA, HI, IA, ID, IL, IN, KS, MD, ME, MN, MO, MS, MT, NC, ND, NE, NJ, NM, NV, NY, OR, PR, RI, SC, TN, TX, UT, WA, WV, WY.
Please order the rabies vaccine separately if you are in a state that will accept the vaccine shipment.
Vaccine Care & Handling
Vaccines are an important part of disease prevention and control, and as any other tool that is used in the care of the horse, if the vaccines are cared for and handled properly they will provide us with maximum benefits. Proper storage of vaccines is one of the most critical aspects in assuring that the vaccine will provide the desired disease protection to the animal. Maintaining vaccines at the appropriate temperature from the time they leave the manufacturer to the time of administration is a very important aspect of proper immunization delivery programs. Lack of adherence to proper temperature maintenance may result in lack of vaccine effectiveness, undue vaccine failures, and an increased rate of local reactions after vaccine administration. Damage can be done by exposure to heat, light, or freezing of the vaccine depending on the nature of the product. The label recommendations for storage of vaccines are: Store in dark at 2° to 7° C (35° to 45° F). Avoid freezing. Agitate the vaccine container well to assure uniform suspension of the vaccine.
**Big Dee’s Tack & Vet Supply recommends that if you have any questions regarding your vaccinations ask your veterinarian. Many different parts of the country recommend different vaccines at different times of the year and certain areas even by state can be different. Big Dee's Tack and Vet Supplies assumes no responsibility for improper or incorrect use of vaccines.